Let's be honest: depending on how robust a world simulation we want this to be, we could write many more "general case” rules for many more things.
For instance, we all know that people need to eat, drink, and breathe, and not being able to do any of those for various amounts of time is really quite bad for you. We also know that being burned, frozen, or drowned for any significant amount of time will cause people to die; that extended exposure to the elements, inclement weather, extreme heat, or extreme cold can be very harmful. If we wanted to focus more on creating a general reality simulator, we could shed ink on rules for these things, but we choose not to do so for two reasons.
Firstly, all of the environmental realities mentioned above might be largely tangential or even irrelevant to the subject matter of your game. Certainly, they are probably edge cases that won't come up with great frequency.
Secondly, in light of the above, I trust the ability of GMs to make appropriate and consistent ad hoc rulings using common sense when these things do come up. Alternatively, feel free to write and incorporate your own house rules to fill in some of these gaps.